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Four tools for testing your Python code

Introduction

It is important to test your code. Tests provide a means to verify that code does what it is intended to do. However, repeated manual testing is tedious and error prone.

In this post I will highlight four tools for helping you automate the testing of your code base.

Background

In a previous post we discussed how to set up clean Python development environments using virtualenv and cookicutter.

$ cookiecutter gh:tjelvar-olsson/cookiecutter-pypackage
...
repo_name (default is "mypackage")? awesome
...
$ cd awesome
$ virtualenv ~/virtualenvs/awesome
$ source ~/virtualenvs/awesome/bin/activate
(awesome)$ python setup.py develop

In this post we will make use of some of the files generated using this setup.

1. Unittest - a Python module for creating tests

Python comes with batteries included and built into the standard library is a module named unittest, which can be used to write tests.

As a side note: tests can be classified into many different types: unit tests, integration tests, functional tests, acceptance tests. Mark Simpson has written a nice overview of the different types of tests on stackoverflow. As the post implies the subject of classifying tests is rather subjective and you get different answers depending on where you look. Personally, I simply use two broad categories: unit tests and functional tests. Where the latter incorporates both acceptance and integration tests.

No matter how you classify your tests you can use Python’s unittest module to write them.

Below is a bare bones skeleton for writing a test using the unittest module. To write a test we create a subclass of the unittest.TestCase base class. Now any functions in our test class that start with test_ will be tested when we call the unittests.main() function. Copy and past the code below into a file named basic_unittest.py.

import unittest

class MyTest(unittest.TestCase):
    def test_something(self):
        pass

if __name__ == "__main__":
    unittest.main()

Let’s see what happens when we run this code.

(awesome)$ python basic_unittest.py
.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ran 1 test in 0.000s

OK

Okay, now let us have a look at the tests/tests.py file generated earlier on by our cookiecutter template.

import unittest
import os
import os.path
import shutil

HERE = os.path.dirname(__file__)
DATA_DIR = os.path.join(HERE, 'data')
TMP_DIR = os.path.join(HERE, 'tmp')


class UnitTests(unittest.TestCase):

    def test_can_import_package(self):
        # Raises import error if the package cannot be imported.
        import awsome

    def test_package_has_version_string(self):
        import awsome
        self.assertTrue(isinstance(awsome.__version__, str))

class FunctionalTests(unittest.TestCase):

    def setUp(self):
        if not os.path.isdir(TMP_DIR):
            os.mkdir(TMP_DIR)

    def tearDown(self):
        shutil.rmtree(TMP_DIR)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    unittest.main()

There are several things to note here.

Let us start by looking at the test_package_has_version_string() function. It makes use of unittest.TestCase.assertTrue() to check that the version number of the awesome package we are developing is a string. There are many other useful “assert” functions built into the unittest.TestCase base class, one of the most used ones being unittest.TestCase.assertEqual().

At the top of the file we import several additional modules: os, os.path, shutil. The os.path module is used to create some variables for defining input and output directories for our functional tests.

The unittest.TestCase.setUp() and unittest.TestCase.tearDown() functions provide a way to ensure test isolation. They are run before and after each individual test function in a test class. The os module is used to create the tests/tmp directory during the set up of a functional test and similarly the shutil module is used to remove the tests/tmp directory when a functional test is finished.

Hopefully this quick overview has provided a enough detail for you to get started writing your own tests. For more information have a look at the unittest documentation.

2. Nose - a test runner for your tests

As you build up more and more tests you want to have a way of running them all automatically. One way to do this is to use nose.

Let us install it using pip.

(awesome)$ pip install nose

Now we can run the test suite using the nosetests command.

(awesome)$ nosetests
nose.plugins.cover: ERROR: Coverage not available: unable to import coverage module
..
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ran 2 tests in 0.004s

OK

There are two things to note in the above. First of all, the nosetests command automatically found and ran our tests. Yay!

Secondly, it complained about not being able to import the coverage module. There are two reasons for this:

  1. We have not installed the coverage module yet
  2. The awesome/setup.cnf file specifies that it should be used
[nosetests]
detailed-errors=1
with-coverage=1
cover-package=awesome
cover-erase=1
verbosity=1

What is coverage all about anyway?

3. Coverage - measuring your code coverage

The coverge module measures code coverage. Code coverage is a measure of how many lines of code are being exercised by your tests. It is particularly useful for identifying areas of the code-base that need more tests.

Let us install it.

(awesome)$ pip install coverage

Now let us run the tests again.

(awesome)$ nosetests
..
Name     Stmts   Miss  Cover   Missing
--------------------------------------
awsome       1      0   100%   
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ran 2 tests in 0.009s

OK

Awesome we have 100% test coverage!

Let us add some more functionality to see what happens when we have code that is not tested. Add the fpaths_in_dir() function to the awesome/__init__.py file.

"""awesome package."""
import os

__version__ = "0.0.1"

def fpaths_in_dir(directory):
    """Return the paths to the files in the directory."""
    fpaths = []
    for fname in os.listdir(directory):
        fpaths.append(os.path.join(directory, fname))
    return fpaths

If we run the tests again we find out that lines 8-11 have not been convered by the tests.

(awseome)$ nosetests
..
Name      Stmts   Miss  Cover   Missing
---------------------------------------
awesome       7      4    43%   8-11
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ran 2 tests in 0.010s

OK

Let’s add a test for them! But wait… Errr…

How do we add a reliable test for something that wants to read information from the file system?

4. Mock - faking objects for unit tests

We can make use of mock objects to solve these types of problems. Mock objects mimic the behaviour of real objects in controllable ways. For more background have a look at the Mock object wikipedia page.

As of Python 3.3 mock is part of the standard library. However, users of older versions of Python can install it using pip.

(awseome)$ pip install mock

Now we can write a test for our function. Add the test function below to the UnitTests class in the awesome/tests/tests.py file.

    def test_fpaths_in_dir(self):
        from mock import MagicMock
        from awesome import fpaths_in_dir
        os.listdir = MagicMock(return_value=['test1.txt', 'test2.txt'])
        fpaths = fpaths_in_dir('some/dir')
        expected = ['some/dir/test1.txt', 'some/dir/test2.txt']
        self.assertEqual(fpaths, expected)

Let us run the tests again.

(awseome)$ nosetests
...
Name      Stmts   Miss  Cover   Missing
---------------------------------------
awesome       7      0   100%
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ran 3 tests in 0.043s

OK

Great all the tests are passing! Now we can relax again.

The mock module can do much more than what I have shown above. Have a look at the mock documentation for some more inspiration.

Conclusion

Python comes with lots of useful tools for helping you test your code base. In this post I have described some of the most established ones. However there are others around. Experiment and find out what works for you.

In the next post I will continue the theme of testing by illustrating some aspects of test-driven development.